There are many immigrants living south of the River Thames, in Bridge Ward Without, in Southwark. Many of these belong to neither the Dutch nor the French churches, nor do they go to their local parish church. From the point of view of the government, this makes them unsatisfactory characters, people who need to be watched. They may be working illegally, or belong to the criminal underworld of thieves and conmen. They may even be Catholic spies. Cut off from the City by the river, Southwark has always been difficult to police.
The area that the local authorities, the Mayor and Aldermen, have under closest control is the City north of the river. Many of the immigrants live there. However, quite a large number of these are living in the 'liberties' of the City: areas where, for one reason or another, the authority of the Mayor and Aldermen is less complete. Foreign craftsmen living in these areas may find it easier to ignore the craft regulations that require them to have been accepted as members by one of the London guilds. There are many immigrants in the liberties of Blackfriars and St Martin's-le-grand.
Outside the City proper, the largest immigrant communities are in the east: in Shoreditch, East Smithfield, Whitechapel, Wapping and the parish of St Katharine's by the Tower.